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Grassy White Box Woodlands
Grassy Box Woodlands are landscapes of scattered eucalypt trees with rolling understories of native grasses and wildflowers. They once covered vast areas of what is now the wheat-sheep country across southeastern Australia. They are part of the land that the early explorer Major Thomas Mitchell described as unencumbered by too much wood, yet possessing enough for all purposes... "and, which, for natural fertility and beauty, could scarcely be surpassed." Land that Major Mitchell called 'Australia Felix'.
These woodlands may not be as spectacular as the towering rainforests or the monumental features of central Australia but they have been the inspiration for much of Australia's culture - both indigenous and non-indigenous.
A range of tree species grow in Grassy Box Woodlands. Yellow Box (Eucalyptus melliodora) and Blakelys Red Gum (E.blakelyi) are most common on the tablelands.White Box (Eucalyptus albens) woodlands are generally found on fertile lower slopes along the western side of the Dividing Range. Grey Box (E.microcar pa), Fuzzy Box (E.conica) then Bimble (or Poplar) Box (E.populnea) woodlands occur on the lower rainfall slopes and plains as we move further west.
While the trees have been cleared to various extents across this landscape,the understorey of native grasses and wildflowers has been greatly modified. The understorey was originally dominated by Kangaroo Grass (Themeda australis) and Snow Grass (Poa species)in the east, with Wallaby Grass (Danthonia species), Spear Grasses (Stipa species)and Windmill Grass (Enteropogon acicularis) increasing westward.
In relatively undisturbed areas (such as country cemeteries, travelling stock reserves and lightly-grazed paddocks)a rich diversity of herbs (including yam daisies), lilies, orchids and other wildflowers are found scattered throughout this native grassy understorey,especially on the more fertile sites where White Box is found. Further west where the seasons are drier,and on poorer soils in the eastern part of the slopes,this rolling native grassland can give way to a more shrubby understorey.
Grassy white box woodland, near Boorowa, NSW
Grassy woodlands dominated by White Box once covered much of the fertile soil on the lower western slopes of the Great Dividing Range from northeastern Victoria across New South Wales to southern Queensland. They now dominate only a tiny fraction of their original distribution.
Some of the best examples of Grassy Box Woodlands can now be found in little used sites such as local cemeteries associated with small rural towns and villages, on railway easements, and on travelling stock reserves and roadside reserves. However remnants on farms are also important.
Grassy White Box Woodlands once occurred across much of the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range, primarily in NSW. These woodlands grow on the deeper, more fertile soils on the hill slopes and gently undulating country on the western side of the Divide. In general Grassy White Box Woodlands, with their rich understorey of native grasses, wildflowers and other plants, occur in areas with average annual rainfall between 500 mm and 800 mm. While they are tolerant of moderate frosts, White Box trees may not survive frequent or heavy frosts. They are therefore usually found in areas with average summer maximum temperatures from 27o to 32o C and average winter minimum temperatures from 5o to -1o C.
Once widespread,these woodlands are now highly fragmented and confined to scattered remnants across their former range. In areas of richer soils, intact remnants of the Grassy White Box Woodland ecological community are now quite rare.
the decline of Grassy Box Woodland
Much of the Grassy Box Woodland country has been cleared for cropping or modified by livestock grazing. Some areas have had well over a century of agricultural use. Ecologists Suzanne Prober and Kevin Thiele have estimated that as little as 0.01% (one ten-thousandth) of the original Grassy White Box Woodlands remain in original condition. The closely related Grey and Yellow Box Woodlands are probably little better off.
Clearing of the more fertile land for cropping, replacement of native understorey with 'improved' pastures and the changes brought by grazing and weed invasion have resulted in the massive reduction of relatively intact Grassy White Box Woodlands (both healthy trees and a richly diverse native understorey).
Box trees are now often widely scattered or in small isolated clumps surrounded by crops or introduced pasture species. Sites that have a history of set stocking or frequent heavy grazing usually lack many of the original understorey plants such as tall native grasses, herbs, lilies, orchids and other wildflowers, and tree regeneration is often limited.
Range of the grassy white box woodlands pre settlement
A rich diversity of plants and animals occur in Grassy Box Woodlands. In 1996 ecologist Dr Suzanne Prober recorded 375 native plant species within the Grassy White Box Woodlands, with the mix of species gradually changing from north to south.
While some of the species found in Grassy Box Woodlands are relatively common, others are declining in numbers and many are becoming endangered or have even become regionally extinct.
Kangaroo Grass (Themeda australis) and Snow Grass (Poa sieberiana) are generally the dominant grasses in relatively undisturbed understorey. Among the grasses, chocolate lilies, various orchids, pea plants and a diversity of smaller herbs are usually plentiful.
Among the rich diversity of other plants,the tall-stemmed yellow Yam Daisy (Microseris lanceolata)is one of the rarer but characteristic plants in more intact remnants. Other endangered species occurring in these woodlands include grevilleas (G.iaspicula and G.wilkinsonii), a leek orchid (Prasophyllum petilum) and a small purple pea (Swainsona recta) and several other species that are vulnerable to extinction.
An important suite of birds and other animals rely on these woodlands for food, shelter and breeding sites. Some of the bird species found in Grassy Box Woodlands rely on the hollows found in mature trees for nesting sites as do possums, phascogales, gliders and bats. The nectar of flowering Box trees is an important food source for many bird species including honeyeaters and parrots, gliders and nectar-feeding native bees and other insects.
Birds are increasingly being recognised both as important contributors to and indicators of the health of our agricultural landscapes.The number of birds using Grassy Box Woodlands as their nesting or feeding sites is impressive, but as Birds Australia have recently shown through their 'Birds on Farms' survey work, once-common bird species in our agricultural areas are now in decline.
The Superb Parrot (Polytelis swainsonii )and the Turquoise Parrot (Neophema pulchella) were once common to Grassy Box Woodlands.These exquisite birds have both been identified as vulnerable to extinction,with their distribution restricted to small areas on the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range.
The spectacularly plumed (black and yellow) Regent Honeyeater (Xanthomyza phrygia) is a nomadic bird which follows its main food source - flowering eucalypts. It favours forks of eucalypts for nest building sites. Clearing of open forests and woodland for agriculture has dramatically reduced its habitat and it is now listed in the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act as endangered.
Also listed as endangered is the Bush Stone Curlew (Burhinus grallarius) once a common sight in open woodland. This long-legged bird which struts across open grassy plains close to belts of trees is characterised by its distinctive 'ker-loo' call that is usually heard at dusk or after dark.
Dramatic changes to Grassy Box Woodland resulting from clearing and grazing have played a major role in the decline of all these species.
Grassy Box Woodlands are home to a diverse range of tree-dwelling mammals including the Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), the very agile Squirrel Glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) and the Brush-tailed Phascogale (Phascogale tapoatafa). Both the Squirrel Glider and the Brush-tailed Phascogale are listed as vulnerable to extinction.
other animal species at risk
Other smaller species are also at risk because of the decline in their habitat. Among the most vulnerable are the Striped Legless Lizard (Delma impar) (which looks and moves like a snake but is actually more closely related to the gecko) and the Golden Sun Moth (Synemon plana). These species may not have the same appeal as the furry tree-dwelling mammals, or the splendour of the parrots, but they are important components of the Grassy Box Woodland ecosystem.
We must also consider the tiny creatures that live in the trees, on the woodland floor and in the soil. Without this vast array of bacteria, fungi, insects, worms and other small organisms, the richness of Grassy Box Woodland areas for both conservation and production use will decline.
The rich diversity of plants that occur in Grassy Box Woodlands provide native fauna with both shelter and food year round. Failure to protect this type of ecosystem may lead to the permanent loss of some species from the landscape.
Only recently has the importance of conserving ecosystems, and the ecological communities that form them, become widely recognised. As land degradation (especially salinity) threatens an ever-expanding area of our food-bowls, and climate change affects the weather patterns in our continent, our understanding of the role of natural landscapes in maintaining water quality and availability, pest control and ultimately agricultural production is growing.
In recent times scientists have begun to talk about the importance of 'ecosystem services' to the future of Australian agriculture and the landscapes that sustain it. The services provided by native trees and deep-rooted perennial grasses and shrubs are increasingly being acknowledged as important in maintaining landscape function. They play vital roles as water pumps, moderators of local climate, soil stabilisers and filters for streams and rivers.
Grassy Box Woodlands provide habitat for animal species that are vital components of the food chain. They help maintain the balance between desirable and pest species, whether plant or animal.
As climate changes and rainfall becomes more erratic, native grasses are better able to withstand drought than the more season-dependent 'improved' pastures. Furthermore the distribution of native grasses is often an important indicator of changes in soil conditions, thus providing an indicator of change in the landscape.
Given the extent of decline of Grassy Box Woodlands, it is vital to manage the remnants for their economic, as well as their conservation benefits.
Healthy native vegetation on your property is a valuable asset. It provides a number of benefits including shade and shelter for stock. It improves the appearance and value of your property, and increases alternative production opportunities. It provides a place for wildlife - some of which help control insect and other pests. It can also help protect your property from salinity, soil degradation, erosion and poor water quality.
If you have patches of Grassy Box Woodland that are in good health and in near-natural condition your management practices have been appropriate. If your remaining bush is in less than pristine condition it is important to assess the damage so you can determine strategies to restore it. Degraded woodland rarely improves without implementing restorative management strategies, in fact it usually gets worse.
As awareness of the importance of healthy bushland has grown,research teams have identified some useful indicators of the health of native woodland remnants. One of the most practical examples of this work is the kit developed by Charles Sturt University researchers who worked with landholders in the Central West of NSW. They developed the 'Save the Bush Toolkit'. Elements of that kit are designed to assist landholders and managers in assessing their farm bushland and the health of both scattered trees and watercourses.
The assessment process outlined in the next section of this booklet draws on a variety of sources including the 'Save the Bush Toolkit', the Department of Land and Water Conservation's VegNotes, site assessment sheets used by Greening Australia in its remnant vegetation fencing grant program, and the sheets used by Liaison Officers working within the Grassy White Box Woodland: Taking Action Now! project.
how healthy is your patch of native bush?
The size of the remnant patch, the trees present, what grows under them and what you find on the ground are key indicators regarding the state of your remaining woodland.
healthy woodland will have:
It is highly likely that your woodland remnants are not in top condition - in fact there are few remnants of Grassy White Box Woodland in NSW that meet the above criteria. Do not despair! Your remnants are still important even if they are modified.
modifed woodland might have:
if your woodland remnants are very degraded:
Although these degraded areas can be restored it will be a difficult and time consuming process.
what about the isolated trees remaining in a farm paddock?
Whether within patches of remaining bushland or standing alone in paddocks,the health of trees is an important thing to consider when planning future management of your land. Although you expect older trees to look less healthy,their decline will be accelerated if they are exposed to other stresses such as insect attack,rising salt levels,exposure to fertilizers or increased nutrients, damage by livestock and/or machinery, soil compaction, lack of water or extremes in temperature.
Healthy trees generally have:
If they are under stress they are more likely to become unhealthy and may have:
The extent of stress and the state of health of trees will help determine whether it is worth trying to save them. It may be preferable to invest the time and energy into establishing new trees, but remember, even dead trees provide important habitat.
Going,going,gone - from a healthy specimen at left through the various stages of stress.
Although the plants and animals that make up the Grassy Box Woodland ecological community have been well documented, there are still many gaps in knowledge. Much can be learned from the interaction between landholders, ecologists and other people interested in the management of these important remnants.
The Grassy Box Woodland Conservation Management Network (CMN)has been established to help support, encourage and coordinate efforts to conserve these woodland remnants.By becoming a member of a CMN and entering into a partnership agreement you can participate in this conservation planning process. Whether an individual landholder,a Local Government or a State Government agency,you can negotiate an agreed level of protection for your Grassy Box Woodland site, then manage the site alongside your normal production activities. You can also gain some assistance in achieving this outcome by negotiating a Voluntary Conservation Agreement with the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. There will also be opportunities for support from others in the network.
Landholders with patches of Grassy Box Woodland on their farms can help increase our understanding of how to manage these patches so that they are conserved within a farm production landscape.
Based on the outcomes of a workshop, some ideas for managing and monitoring to improve Grassy Box Woodland have been identified. They are just ideas, based on our best knowledge to date. Every landholder and manager with patches of Grassy Box Woodland can help determine whether these ideas are the best way to influence conservation in a particular location, or during various seasonal conditions.
what are we aiming for?
Restoring degraded woodland is undoubtedly a complex task. It is difficult to estimate the natural density of trees for the climatic conditions, and canopy density has a profound influence on what grows underneath. Should there be shrubs and grasses present, or is a grassy understorey more natural? It can take as long as 100 years to re-establish mixed age stands from seedlings through to mature and old trees with numerous hollows that provide habitat for birds and mammals - where do we start?
Many species such as yam daisies,orchids,various lilies and other understorey species are difficult to cultivate, but may regenerate naturally.If used in the optimal way for the conditions,several management techniques may facilitate natural regeneration.
Because factors such as climate, soils, distance from other remnants and past management vary from one site to another,the ecological processes associated with each site also vary. This means that there are no set recipes for management. Rather, management needs to be a trial and error process based on the best available information. Adaptive management is an approach that many landholders have intuitively used for decades, but in order to maximise its effectiveness, it is important to monitor and consider the outcomes in an ongoing way, that can perhaps best be described by this diagram.
This process is called 'adaptive management'. In essence, adaptive management treats management actions as experiments. Starting with an 'educated guess' about management regimes (developed from personal experience, published research or communication with others), the management team (often a landholder working with advice from a scientist) records the technique to be used and the expected outcomes (which are preferably defined in measurable terms). The team then implements a particular management activity and compares the result with the expectations. If the activity did not achieve the expectation, the manager then adapts the technique in light of the result and tries again. This approach has been widely used to adapt weed control techniques to local conditions. It is also used intuitively by many landholders, although sometimes they do not have all the information available to them.
The basic steps of adaptive management are:
the importance of regular monitoring
By keeping brief but consistent records of how and when these important woodland remnants are grazed, and what changes are happening on the ground, landholders can help research scientists build our knowledge and understanding of what works best in any particular situation. This monitoring need not be too complex or demanding to be valuable. It may be simply putting in a small number of fixed points, marked with a numbered steel post. From these points photos can be taken once during each season. At the same time the main grasses present adjacent to the post, the extent of ground cover, the number of species in a half-metre square near the post, and anything new that catches the eye should be noted.
By working with scientists who specialise in understanding the ecology of our Grassy Box Woodlands, the information collected can readily be tailored to meet scientific needs, while still keeping the task simple. Our memories of changes occurring over time vary widely, but with a few simple indicators this can be overcome, and changes can be related not only to grazing and other aspects of land management, but also to rainfall (which most landholders record regularly).
For monitoring to happen regularly, it must be meaningful. It is important that the things monitored (the indicators) are SMART i.e.they are:
Simple, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and Timely.
Once a landholder or manager has the steps in place to monitor what is happening with the remaining Grassy Box Woodlands on their land, there are then several aspects of management that can be varied to test their influences on the survival or recovery of the woodland remnants. This information kit is not about providing proven 'answers'. It is about helping bring together current scientific knowledge and landholder experience, to build the best possible management under changing conditions.
ideas for managing & monitoring
There are four key tools that should be considered in managing Grassy Box Woodlands for conservation within rural production landscapes: spelling/rest, fire, fencing and grazing.
However, as indicated earlier, there are no set recipes for the best use of any of these tools. Keeping or restoring your woodlands to a healthy condition - with new trees growing and a rich mix of native grasses and other plants beneath them - will require different approaches at different times. The term 'adaptive management' is increasingly being used to describe this carefully considered, but variable approach.
Q: When does spelling a grassy woodland from grazing help conserve it?
Used thoughtfully, rest can be a powerful tool in conserving native species within a grazing system. Decreasing or eliminating grazing pressure in sensitive areas reduces soil disturbance and loss of sensitive native plant species. By spelling an area in spring and summer, you will allow most native plants to flower, set seed, germinate and grow. Where stock eat new seedling trees as they regenerate, then spelling will also enable those new trees to grow. This encourages natural regeneration which reduces opportunities for weed species to invade. Rest can also be useful when an area is under water stress. However, spelling grazed woodlands is probably only suitable for areas with low levels of exotic weed infestation. Very weedy sites may get worse if spelled.
If you want to improve the regeneration of both Box trees and their native understorey, consider providing rest periods for those areas. But you will need to think about the timing and the season, and its rainfall. You'll also need to keep an eye on the area and monitor for weed growth and other unwanted outcomes.
Q: Is fire a useful conservation tool in grassy box woodlands?
Fuel (e.g. dry grass) often builds up to an unacceptable level, and in some cases old, rank grass may smother the growth of other species. A cool, patchy burn between late autumn and very early spring may prompt germination of new species and allow ground fauna to survive, but in most cases individual patches should only be burnt every 5-10 years. Remember, don't burn the whole area.
Care needs to be taken not to leave large areas of ground bare during autumn when annual weeds are germinating.
As much information regarding burning is still unknown, it would be useful for you to test and monitor the effects of:
Remember that burning alone is unlikely to control introduced perennials such as Catsear (Hypochaeris radicata), Wild Sage (Salvia verbenacea), Plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and Phalaris.
Q: How useful is fencing in helping with conservation management?
Fencing is obviously a very important but expensive tool for controlling grazing. Smaller paddocks also provide a means of better controlling grazing pressure.
While there are several schemes that provide support for fencing materials costs, you need to be aware that many do not assist with expenses for temporary fencing (such as electric fences).
Simply fencing out an area may not conserve its values. Weeds may invade, stock may be kept in rather than out, or the area may have already been changed so much that it needs active management to restore it (e.g. occasional grazing).
After you have fenced out an area to help conserve it, it is useful to visit the site at regular intervals to see how it is responding to its changed use and the seasons. Observe what's new there, how healthy the site looks, and any other changes that have happened, whether intended or not. And don't be afraid to seek advice if you need it.
Q: Is grazing an effective conservation management tool?
In production areas, well-managed grazing provides one of the most effective means of controlling ground cover, but remember that large areas of bare ground invite an invasion of weeds, soil loss and other problems.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that short-term, high intensity grazing may be more efficient than continuous grazing. However, it also involves greater risk and requires careful monitoring of the ground cover, the stock and their grazing patterns.
If using intensive grazing to thin ground cover in a predominantly weedy site, time it just before the weed seeds fall (this is generally late spring for annual weeds). This may help any remaining perennial native plants out-compete annual weeds. If you thin native grasses in less weedy sites, avoid grazing in spring to early summer when most native plants set seed. Sheep are more intensive grazers than cattle and you can be fairly sure that both kangaroos and sheep will eat out your young eucalypts (especially in spring).
When using grazing to retain and regenerate Grassy Box Woodland, be aware that responses to grazing and burning vary among native grasses. Different species have different growing seasons. Some grasses known as C3s (e.g. Wallaby Grass, Microlaena and Wheat Grass) are cooler season plants and are most active in autumn, winter and spring. Other grasses known as C4s (e.g. Kangaroo Grass, Red Grass and the Warrego Grasses) become more active as temperatures warm up and are most active in spring, summer and autumn.
Both C3s and C4s provide good stock feed at different times of the year. As native grasses are generally more deep-rooted than introduced annuals, they are better able to make use of available moisture. Managing grazing so that neither C3s nor C4s disappear from the system is very important for productivity and conservation.
Wildlife also plays an important part in conserving the landscape and can help improve farm production.
A healthy bird population helps build a healthy tree population, as there are fewer insects to attack stressed trees. But many bird species require large remnants to survive. It has been demonstrated that several species do not occur in woodland remnants smaller than about 10 ha, while some only occur in remnants that are within 650 m of another woodland remnant.
Remember, the old urge to keep the farm 'tidy' is not helpful to our wildlife. Dead trees (whether standing or fallen), logs and rocks are important habitat components for many birds, reptiles and other ground dwelling species. Some birds and arboreal mammals (including the insectivorous bats) prefer old trees with hollows that provide shelter and nesting sites. Other animals are attracted to shrubby sites.
The benefits of managing to increase fauna on your land include reduced insect attack on both trees and crops, increased pollination and germination, and the joys of observing diverse native fauna on your own patch of Grassy Box Woodland.
With the listing of Grassy White Box Woodland as an Endangered Ecological Community, the importance of working together for the restoration of these woodlands has grown. It is hoped that this information kit will contribute in a small way.
While information and knowledge about managing for the conservation of Grassy Box Woodlands within our agricultural production landscapes is far from complete, much work has been done in recent years, and there are a number of useful resources available. Some of these are listed below.
Landcare members discussing Grassy Box Woodland management
Best, K., Green, J., McIntyre, S., McIvor, J., MacLeod, N. and Martin, T. (undated). Balancing conservation and production:Understanding and using landscape thresholds in property planning. CSIRO, St Lucia. While not directly focused on monitoring at the property and landscape scales, this practical guide provides useful information on managing production properties for conservation outcomes. Available on-line: http://www.cse.csiro.au/research/Program3/sr/Learning%20Module.PDF (Acrobat 4 is needed to view the file and is available free from www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readermain.html)
Carr,D.1997, Plants in Your Pants, Vol 1. Prepared by David Carr and illustrated by Gail Cannon, this little pocket guide was a joint project of Greening Australia (northwest NSW) and the Manilla Landcare Group. It provides for easy identification of common plants on the northwest slopes of NSW. Available from Toni McLeish, "Kurrajong Hills", Upper Manilla NSW 2346, phone/fax:02 6785 6504, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Charles Sturt University 1997. Save the Bush Toolkit. Prepared by Prof. David Goldney and Sue Wakefield - this very practical kit will assist in monitoring and managing your remnant grassy Box woodlands. Available from Greening Australia, Central West NSW, PO Box 510, Cowra 2794 or phone Donna Windsor on 02 6341 9310, email: email@example.com
Department of Land & Water Conservation NSW 1998. Rural production and native vegetation conservation. Prepared to support landholders at the time of the introduction of the Native Vegetation Conservation Act, this loose-leaf folder contains information on species identification, rural land management and useful contacts and funding sources. Available from the DLWC on 1300 305 695 email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Eddy, E., Mallinson, D., Rehwinkel, R., Sharp, S. 1998 Grassland Flora - A field guide for the Southern Tablelands (NSW and ACT). Although designed for the tablelands, most of the plants illustrated also occur in the White Box Grassy Woodlands. All species have full colour photos and brief descriptions. Available through Environment ACT, phone:02 6207 9777, email: environmentACT@act.gov.au
Tothill, J. and Partridge, I. 1998. Monitoring grazing lands in northern Australia. Proceedings of workshop held at Gatton College, Oct 15-17, 1996. Tropical Grasslands Society of Australia, Occasional Publication No.9, St Lucia. Although this publication focused on grazing lands in northern Australia much of the discussion contains information relevant to monitoring in southern Australian production lands. Book sales through www.tropicalgrasslands.asn.au/ or Grassland Society of Australia, book sales, Long Pocket Laboratories, 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068, Australia.
Support people who can assist with your management of Grassy White Box Woodlands include:
Conservation Management Network Project
Grassy Box Woodland project Rural Liaison Officers:
Your nearest Greening Australia office
The authors:Judy Lambert and Jane Elix
wish to thank each of their project partners in the Grassy White Box Woodland Project for input to and constructive criticism of this kit during its preparation.
Rural Liaison Officers Ray Dowling,Toni McLeish & Geoff Tonkin assisted in numerous ways. Ecologists Suzanne Prober & Kevin Thiele of Ecological Interactions critiqued both the science and the presentation of the kit. Other project partners who made significant contributions were Erica Higginson and Linda Bell, NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, Belinda McNeill, NSW Farmers' Association, Garry Allan & Donna Windsor, Greening Australia Cowra and Syd Craythorn, Wellington Shire Council.
The kit would not have moved from identified need to reality had it not been for the editorial and design expertise provided by Judith Denby of Site Specific Pty Ltd.
Funding from the Commonwealth Government's Natural Heritage Trust made the Grassy White Box Woodland project possible.
Information contained in this publication may be copied or reproduced for study, research information or educational purposes or as property management advice, subject to the inclusion of an acknowledgement of the source.
The information contained in this kit is based on materials believed to be correct and reliable. Community Solutions and its partners have made efforts to confirm the accuracy of information from outside sources, but accept no responsibility for any errors resulting from unforeseen inaccuracies or for any damage or loss suffered by an individual or corporation as a result.
Text: Judy Lambert and Jane Elix, Community Solutions
Editing, design and illustration: Site Specific Pty Ltd
Photography: Geoff Lambert and Jane Elix
This project is funded by the Natural Heritage Trust